Being overweight or Obesity is the leading cause of lifestyle disorders. Heart diseases, diabetes are top in lifestyle disorders. Maintaining ideal body weight is recommended to prevent or delay the onset of these diseases. 645 populations is overweight where as 30.55 % population is obese. There are different solutions being used to treat weight issues, amongst which surgery is the option. Nation health Institute suggests that weight loss surgery is advisable to morbidly obese patients. BMI more than 40 is considered as morbid obesity. Who should go for Weight loss surgery? As per international standards following BMI ranges suggest degree of obesity: 30 to 34.9 Kg/m2 – Class 1 obesity 35 to 40 kg/m2 – Class 2 obesity More than 40 – Class 3 obesity Person with BMI 35 and diabetes or heart disease may go for weight loss surgery. Recently FDA has approved adjustable gastric binding to people with BMI more than 30. How does surgery helps in weight loss? Obesity is all related to increased calorie consumption. One needs to shed excess fat stored in the body by restricting calorie consumption and using stored fat for energy purpose. Weight loss surgery broadly works in following two types:
- Restriction: The normal stomach size can store 4-6 cups of food. In restriction kind of surgery the stomach size is reduced. So, once stomach is full person cannot eat more. This weight loss surgery works on restricting the amount of food eaten.
- Malabsorption: The food absorption is done in intestine. In this surgery part of intestine is reduced in terms of diversion. So food is diverted directly to last part of the intestine. This leads to Malabsorption of the calories.
Weight loss surgery is done laproscopically or as open surgery. In laparoscopic surgery 4 to 6 stitches are given (1 inch long stitch). Bariatric surgery is kind of open surgery. Is there any side effect of the surgery?
- After surgery one can experience bleeding, infection at the site of cut.
- Nutritional deficiencies are another side effect. If an individual is not taking given multi vitamin mineral supplements can lead to deficiencies.
- Stricture and hernia can be developed at later stage after the surgery.
- Experts suggest about 10% people may experience side effects post weight loss surgery. 1 to 3% people may have life threatening side effects.
What are the results of weight loss surgery?
- Gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion lead to 60% weight loss of excess weight. It can take several months to few years to show the weight reduction.
- Laparoscopic gastric binding results in 40% weight reduction of excess weight.