Differentiating between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes:
It is accounts for only 5 – 10 % of those with diabetes. It was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
(IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. It is caused by an auto-immune mechanism where body’s defense system attacks & destroys the insulin-producing cells in pancreas. The reason why this occurs is not fully understood. People with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin. Hence lifelong daily insulin injections are crucial for survival. The disease can affect people of any age, but usually occurs in children or young adults. Type 1 diabetes is not preventable as lifestyle is not a contributing factor.
Type 2 diabetes:
It is called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, and accounts for about 90 – 95% of all cases of diabetes. It is characterized by varying degree of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, either of which may be present much before diabetes becomes clinically manifest. The dual defect of insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors.
The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes usually occurs after the age of 40 but can occur earlier, especially in populations with high diabetes prevalence for example in Asians. Type 2 diabetes can remain undetected for many years and the diagnosis is often made from associated complications or incidentally through an abnormal blood or urine glucose test. It is often, but not always, associated with obesity, which itself can cause insulin resistance and lead to elevated blood glucose levels. Thus it is possible to prevent type 2 diabetes by maintaining ideal body weight with the help of lifestyle modification techniques. Once diagnosed, Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured or reversed completely. It can be controlled on tables (oral hypoglycemic drugs) but may require insulin eventually.
Well controlled diabetes leads to lesser complications & better quality of life.